Africa–Europe relations have for years been marked by an imbalanced donor–recipient relationship, with African governments seeking access to EU trade and aid preferences, while European leaders have cultivated privileged ties with African elites and ignored the needs of the continent's younger generation. China's investments under the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) grab global attention, but it's understood that the program is worsening Africa's already high debt burden. Meanwhile, many countries on the continent are genuinely wooing another spectacularly pushy nation, Russia, even though the Wagner Group's behaviour is reminiscent of the worst colonial memories in Africa. So starts the age of international rivalry for Africa.
In our analysis István Vass details the most significant international actors when it comes to rivalry for Africa and gives a brief outlook on how this new-fangled recolonization could play out.
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